Hegelian Glee-Watch: Dawkins, Go Home… Edition

I’m very fond of Hegel’s early anti-theological writings; there’s something just so, er, zesty about them. Here’s a representative passage:

I think there is no better sign of our time than the fact that mankind portrays itself as being so worthy of respect. It is proof that the aura surrounding the oppressors and gods of this earth is fading. The philosopher will demonstrate this dignity and the peoples will learn to feel and not merely demand the rights that have been so trampled under foot, but to receive them and take possession of them for themselves. Religion and politics have conspired together. The former has taught what the latter wanted: contempt for mankind, man’s inability to achieve good, to become something through his own efforts. With the propagation of the idea of how things should be, the indolence of people settled in their ways, their willingness to accept everything as it is for evermore, will disappear.

Hegel, Letter to Schelling

Draft Review of Hammer’s ‘German Idealism: Contemporary Perspectives’

Comments, whether stylistic or substantive, very welcome!

Espen Hammer (ed.): German Idealism: Contemporary Perspectives, London, Routledge, 2007, pp. 339. £18.99 pbk. ISBN 0-415-37305-0.

Update: I’ve taken down this post as the review is now forthcoming in the British Journal for the History of Philosophy in early 2009. Look out for it there…

Update II: The review is available online to subscribers here.

Articulation and Experience: McDowell’s Revised Position

Recently, McDowell has revised his views about the conceptual content of experience. At least initially, this caused some head-scratching (see Daniel and Tim Thornton‘s posts, for example). In this post, I want to have a closer look at these revisions and the possible motivations for them. In general, I think that the substantive changes in McDowell’s position are not huge, but neither are they merely cosmetic. In particular, some of his familiar claims about Davidson-style accounts are not only clarified but buttressed. Quite how necessary such revisions were, beyond the ‘strategic’ advantage they gain McDowell in the dialectic, as well as what might be lost by making them, I won’t go into here. Instead, I’ll just stick with what I take to be the background and motivation for them.

McDowell’s initial ascriptions of propositional content to experience arose out of his determination to avoid the Myth of the Given. He takes it that a conception of experience which could rationally constrain thought yet avoid the Myth would require rational capacities to be operative in its presentation of the world to us. The rational capacities in question are the ability to deploy concepts. So, he thinks that to have a bearing on how we ought to use concepts in the formation of beliefs or judgements then experience must already possess conceptual content. McDowell sets out this requirement like so:

To avoid making it unintelligible how the deliverances of sensibility can stand in grounding relations to paradigmatic exercises of the understanding such as judgements and beliefs, we must conceive this co-operation in a quite particular way: we must insist that the understanding is already inextricably implicated in the deliverances of sensibility themselves. Experiences are impressions made by the world on our senses, products of receptivity; but those impressions themselves already have conceptual content.

This means that conceptual capacities are operative in experience but not in the same way in which they are operative in judgment or action. McDowell marks this contrast by saying that while judgements exercise conceptual capacities, experiences simply actualise them.

The crucial assumption that McDowell will later reject is that the actualisation of conceptual capacities in experience, which is required for that experience to stand within the space of reasons, means that experience must have propositionally articulated conceptual content. Thought of in this way, experience has a that-structure, such that one can hear that there is a river ahead or see that there is a mug on the desk. What is distinctive about propositional content is not just this that-structure though, but that the content which it captures is the same as the content figuring in judgements or beliefs that things are thus and so. It is this idea that McDowell will question rather than the intuitively plausible notion that we can experience that something is the case.

McDowell’s denial that experience possesses propositional content is best approached via another issue he changes his mind about, namely, whether what an experience non-inferentially entitles us to believe must feature in that experience’s conceptual content. On this view, without the concepts that feature in what we are entitled to conclude also featuring in the experience then no such non-inferential entitlement is possible. For example, for my experience to non-inferentially enable me to know it is a blueberry I am seeing then the experience would have to ‘contain’ a proposition expressible as ‘This is a blueberry.’ The thought seems to be that the concept blueberry would be at least passively drawn on in structuring the experience if seeing the object before me can count as knowing that it is a blueberry. Without such concepts (the thought would go) we would only be presented with sensibles-shapes, sounds and colours, etc.-rather than something in a form that could count as knowing an object.

Against this approach, McDowell now thinks that we can make sense of noninferential knowledge in which concepts do not have to feature in experience in this way. The difference between someone who does and does not non-inferentially know that there is a blueberry before them, despite both of them having a clear view of the object, need not lie in the content of their experience. That is, there need be no difference in what is sensuously presented. Instead, what may differ is whatever enables me to recognise that I am dealing with a blueberry, on the basis of what is given in the content of experience. McDowell thinks that we are under no compulsion to suppose that our ability to recognise blueberries (subsuming objects under the concept blueberry) requires the concept to feature in the content of experience. Thus, my non-inferential knowledge that there is a blueberry before me can owe some of its content to my experience and some to my recognitional capacities.

All this does not mean that experience can feature no concepts though. On the contrary, McDowell insists that experience does not fashion us with a sheer unconceptualised given since without conceptual capacities being operative in experience then we fall into Giveness. However, he thinks that conceptual capacities associated with proper and common sensibles might suffice. So, on this view, concepts are required to structure experience, but these need only be relatively thin and akin to Kantian categorial requirements. To be in a form in which it can exercise rational constraint, experience will have to possess the minimal structure that results from it actualising the concepts for proper sensibles like sound, such as pitch and volume, and those for common sensibles like distance and quantity.

Even if the conceptual content of experience need only be restricted to proper and common sensibles, then it still might be the case that experience is propositional in form. In this case, we would experience that things are thus and so with respect to the features of objects corresponding to the concepts of proper and common sensibles, where this experience has the same form as judgements and beliefs that things were this way. For example, we would not experience that there is blueberry here but we would still experience that there was an object some distance in front us, say. However, McDowell thinks that the best way to understand this sort of actualisation of concepts in experience is as resulting not in a propositional unity but an intuitional one.

What would be the difference between experience possessing intuitional and propositional unity? In a nutshell, intuitional content is unarticulated but articulable whereas propositional content is articulated. Thus, each implies a different relation to discursive activity. In discursive activity, we assemble content in a way analogous to forming a meaningful statement. That is, we are not merely given the content which results but must explicitly form it by drawing on other content. These rather abstract formulations demand an attempt to fill them out somewhat though.

What McDowell seems to be aiming for is this. On the one hand, experience must draw on some rational capacities to provide a sensible framework in which it can reveal the empirical world to us; thus, intuitional content is not Given independently of the rational capacities required to get a cognitive grip on it. However, in another sense, intuitional content is given, because we do not have to actively synthesise shapes, colours and sounds, etc., into experiences of the world. But this sort of glimpse of the world can be further exploited. Firstly, it can be the basis of immediate recognition that furnishes us with non-inferential knowledge. Secondly, its content can be articulated into judgements, which require actively employing concepts in coming to think about what we have experienced. For example, in favourable conditions (adequate light, good training, etc.), I will be able to look at an object and immediately know that it is a blueberry. In other cases, I might have to consult a botanical guide, or reflect on my concept of a blueberry, which will require me to explicitly articulate features of my experience of an object (e.g. its colour or shape) which can be used to form a judgement about the object.

One of the advantages of this revised position on experience is that it allows McDowell to reformulate his disagreement with Davidson. McDowell had claimed that Davidson failed to allow for the rational constraint which experience can exert over thought. If, as Davidson has claimed, “nothing can count as a reason for holding a belief except another belief,” then the only role for experience in rational constraint will be via beliefs about, or caused by, experience; and McDowell claimed that this fell short of his conditions for a minimal empiricism. By McDowell’s lights, Davidson had succeeded in seeing that conceptual capacities had to operative for something to become a reason-giving event and state, but he had failed to see how these conceptual capacities could be operative in experience itself. Defenders of Davidson disputed McDowell’s claims, insisting that nothing is missing in the Davidsonian picture. If, as McDowell previously thought, experience has a propositional structure, then the only candidate for what it could be was already present: beliefs causally triggered by the environment through which rational constraint was exercised. McDowell struggled to say what the Davidsonian picture lacked since he insisted on a distinction between experiences with propositional content and beliefs about these experiences, which he had difficulty in cashing out.

On the revised view, McDowell rejects the claim that experiences have a propositional content. This allows a reformulation of the distinction McDowell means to capture. Now, this distinction is between experiences, with intuitional content, and beliefs about these experiences, with propositional content. Since experiences no longer have the same sort of content as beliefs then it should be clearer what the distinction is meant to be. This difference in the variety of content possessed can be stated like so: Intuitional content consists in a view upon the world and can exert a rational constraint upon thought but it is not (yet) a case of taking things to be as it presents them. Beliefs about experience, which require the discursive activity of articulating this intuitional content, will be such a case of taking things to be a certain way.

An advantage of this revised view is that it gives us a richer palette in approaching experience. Firstly, it avoids a worry about Davidson’s conception of how we take up attitudes towards the world:

even when we detach belief-acquisition from explicitly judging things to be so, as we should, we exaggerate the extent of the doxastic activity experience prompts in us if we suppose we acquire all the beliefs we would be entitled to by what we have in view [in experience].

McDowell’s view seems well-placed to handle this phenomenon. This is because, on the revised model, intuitional content can rationally constrain my uptake of beliefs and judgements, but it is to be contrasted with actually coming to form beliefs and judgements or causal compulsions to do so. A Davidson-style account, on the other hand, can appear to misdescribe experience by too-readily translating experiential awareness into already-articulated beliefs about experience (at least insofar as features of this awareness can be rationally relevant to the formation of beliefs).

McDowell’s position is attractive insofar as it makes room for the idea that we can interpret experience, through engaging in such activities as attempting to discursively articulate it. This way of understanding our relation to experience seems to better capture the way in which what we experience is both receptively given-we cannot simply choose what we experience-but also open to have its significance for us transformed by the way in which we can frame it, focus on salient aspects, respond emotionally to it, and so on. For example, consider cases of seeing-as, like the duck-rabbit picture, or the difference between hearing a piece of music before and after one has learned to play it. Even if we want to say that there is no qualitative difference in the content of experiences which are so interpreted, how they bear upon the formation of propositional attitudes, and even rationally constrain them, would appear to be different: the world is revealed to us in a different light in virtue of them. The Davidsonian can appeal to the process of revising beliefs to capture this interpretative element in experience, but this would be taking place at the level of propositionally articulated items alone. Arguably, this fails to capture the phenomenology of coming to see the world in a different way. So too, failing to mark the difference between articulated and unarticulated content in this respect fails to capture what we might call the depth of experience. That is, experience presents us with a rich vista to explore, only some of which we will, or even can, come to engage with.

Another important consequence of McDowell’s revised position is its clarification of a core but neglected aspect of his thought, namely, the role it gives to freedom. Recall that for Davidson, experience causes beliefs which exert rational constraint but exerts no independent rational constraint of its own. Whereas, on McDowell’s revised view, experience can exert rational constraint-entitling and prohibiting thoughts-without being in the articulated form of beliefs with propositional content. Thus, for him, experience can be an invitation to form a belief. This means that we can be in a position to decide whether or not to form beliefs on the basis of our experience, which it is up to us whether to take as a reliable guide to reality. What beliefs I do form on the basis of my experience are at least to some extent up to me, even if some beliefs (or even the vast majority) are acquired involuntarily. This, we may think, does a better job of explaining our epistemic responsibility for our doxastic states than supposing a merely causal role for experience. The Davidsonian is still able to appeal to the process of rational reflection upon and revision of beliefs caused through experience, but arguably this is too far downstream in the process to do justice to the responsibility which ought to be in place in the process of forming them originally.